ISSN: 2640-7604
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research
Research Article       Open Access      Peer-Reviewed

Effect of Using Zornia glochidiata (shelini) Meal in Replacement of Wheat Bran on Lamb Performance and Feeding Cost Decreasing

Idris Adam Idris1, Mohamed Tagi Saed Kiir1, Suleiman Eshag Mohamed Abdalla2, Salah Basar Hammad Dahia3, Jumaa Barram Jadalla1 and Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem1*

1Department of Animal Production Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan
2Department of Forest and Range, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of AlSalam Afula Sudan
3Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Dallanj, Sudan
*Corresponding author: Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem, Department of Animal Production Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan, E-mail:
Received: 13 September, 2021 | Accepted: 28 September, 2021 | Published: 29 September, 2021
Keywords: Zornia glochidiata; Wheat bran; Desert lamb performance; Feed intake; Body weight change; Feeding cost decreasing

Cite this as

Idris IA, Saed Kiir MT, Mohamed Abdalla SE, Hammad Dahia SB, Ebrahiem MA, et al. (2021) Effect of Using Zornia glochidiata(shelini) Meal in Replacement of Wheat Bran Lamb Performance and Feeding Cost Decreasing. Int J Vet Sci Res 7(2): 123-126. DOI: 10.17352/ijvsr.000091

Copyright Licence

© 2021 Idris IA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

This trial was aimed to study the effects of replacing wheat bran with different levels of Zornia glochidiatameal on feed intake, general performance of Desert lambs and feeding cost decreasing. Twelve lambs of four months old and weighing 19.500 kg +500g were divided into three groups each with four animals. Feed intake and body weight change were monitored every ten days up to fifty days. The data were statistically analyzed via analysis of variance and the differences among means were detected least significance (LSD) test. The results indicated that voluntary dry matter intake significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the group that consumed a ration with 26% Zornia glochidiatameal (II) followed by those were on a ration with wheat bran only (I) and lastly that had a ration with 42% Z. glochidiata (III). Feed intake was 1090, 970 and 910 for group II, I and III, respectively. Similarly body weight gain was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in group II, (6.1kg/50 days) followed by group I (4.9 kg/50 days) and group III with 4.3 kg/50 days. The daily weight gain was 98, 122, 89 g when the lambs consumed rations with 0.00, 26 and 42 % of Z. glochidiata meal, respectively. The cost of kilogram of the first ration was 6.8 SDG when only wheat bran was used, and it decreased to 5.7 SDG when 26% wheat was replaced by Z. glochidiata meal and when Z. glochidiata meal was increased to 41% the cost was further decreased to 5 SDG.


Sudan is one of the largest animal population owners in Africa. This wealth was estimated to be several million heads among which cattle Sheep goat and camel were respectively, 29.4, 39.1, 30.5 and 4.6 million heads [1]. Over 60% of the estimated figure of sheep of the Sudan is Desert sheep which is will know for production of good quality meat for local consumption and export.

Meat is a vital food for human as it contributes into tissue building in addition to provision of energy vitamins and minerals. it is an important item in the human diet of the Sudan. Beside the daily family consumption, there are many occasions and celebrations in Sudanese customs that necessitate slaughtering animals such as naming new borne wedding, religious festivals and deceased morning ceremonies. In all these occasions animals particularly sheep are always slaughtered (Elgaili.1970).

Sheep of Sudan are reared mainly for meat production and their economic importance arises from the fact that sheep are the major source of red meat for local consumption and for export [2].

Desert sheep is mainly raised under traditional pattern of management on natural grazing. Sheep husbandry system especially in Kordofan is varied between sedentary and nomadic flocks.

Feed quality and quantities are affected by seasonality where the determining factor is amount and distribution of precipitation. El Hag, et al. [3] reported that there are many subtypes of Sudan desert sheep in Kordofan state. The main subtypes are: Kabbashi and Hamari sheep. Ebrahiem [2] classified Sudan desert sheep under these main ecotypes: Gazera and Butana sheep this group includes (Shugor, Watich and Dubasi); Kabashi and Hamari sheep in Kordofan region; Medoub sheep; Albega sheep; Northern Nilotic sheep and Western Africa sheep this group include: Fulani and Zaggawa sheep. Idris, et al. [4] reported that, the nutritional limitation, low nutritive value of the range, high ambient temperature, scarcity of feed and water are have great effect on the reproduction and production performance of the sheep in semi -arid area of Kordofan state as compared to that in temperate regions. Desert sheep of the Sudan comprises seven sub-types, namely Kabashi, Hamari, Meidob, Beja, Butana, Gezira and Watish. The desert sheep is raised mainly under extensive nomadic conditions depending on natural grazing [5]. Kababish (the model of the ecotype) is further classified into tribal subtypes, Hamari, Kabashi, and Shanbali in West and North Kordofan and Darfur states. The tribal subtype Kabashi is raised in the northern and eastern parts of North Kordofan and Darfur States while Hamari subtype is found in the western part of Kordofan and Darfur regions with different grades of crosses between these two tribal subtypes in the middle of the region. The main colours of Kabashi are brown, light brown and spotted black or red and white.

In sedentary system the flocks are kept close to village with minimal movement compared to the nomadic system where movement is throughout the year [6]. El Hag, et al. [3] reported that husbandry system have some effects on production characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep and that mortality rate in breeding ewes was lower in sedentary flocks in nomadic ones.

The nomadic pastoralists represent 60% of the country total population and they possess almost 90% of the total livestock population under this nomadic open grazing system provides animals for slaughtering for provision of meat that is consumed at home and exported as the seasonal take of lambs and mature animals are brought to markets from areas of production for local consumption and for export .the livestock production system still contribute to almost 23% of the country national income [7].

One of the major sheep production constraints under rangelands condition is the unavailability of nutritious grazing resources on a year round basis. Biomass produced from rangelands is low quality roughage and the situation is further aggravated by overgrazing in most areas (90% of the vegetation) and the disappearance of legumes and perennials [8]. Normally farmers provide their animals with different Supplements during critical times of feed shortage necessary. Supplement used are mainly oil seed cakes and cereal grains. These ingredients are competed for between humans and animals and their cost is high. To overcome feed shortage, there is a need to for studying towards making use of nonconventional feed resource and new feed resource for the growing sheep population in the country and the region.

Objectives of the study

Overall objective was to reduce feeding cost by using cheap ingredients that are available in the area and that cannot be used by humans.

As direct objective it is proposed to study the effect of replacement of wheat bran with Zornia glochidiatameal on feed intake, nutrients digestibility and body weight change.

Zornia glochidiatais a palatable range plant and produces a large amount of seeds and successful Utilization in replacing wheat bran that is an important ingredient in poultry rations and of high cost with assist in reducing the cost of diets and ration to feeding lambs.

Material and methods

Study area

This study was conducted in Elobeid in North Kordofan State Sudan. The locality lies in the semi-desert arid ecological zone, between latitudes 12˚:25 - 30˚: 45 N and longitudes 29˚:35 – 30: 30 E. The climate of the area is arid and semi-arid. Highest annual temperatures recorded in April and May and July (40C˚) while lowest values are recorded in December and January (15C˚). The rainy season extends from July to October with an average annual rainfall of about 280 mm [1].

Vegetation cover in dominated by annual grasses forbs (El-Hag and El Wakeel 1998). Common grass species which found in this area are Zornia glochidiata, Cenchrus biflorus, and Dactylocteniium aegyptium. Some of the common tree species are Acacia senegal, Acacia tortilis Balanites aegyptica and Adamnsonia digitata. On sandy soil, whereas Acacia mellifera and Acacia nubica dominate in clay soils (El Tahir, et al. 1999).

Soil types vary from the predominant sandy soil, to loamy sand to clay. The main crops grown here are divided into: cereal crops like sorghum, cash crops like groundnut and other. Crop residues like groundnut, sesame cake and watermelon seeds are considered high quality concentrates. Livestock in the area play an important economical role together with agricultural production with animal population [1,9]. Most of these animals are kept by nomads depends on natural grazing and crop residues [8,10]. The livestock that were found in this area is sheep, cows and goats. Cows and goats were found in form household.

The human activity in the area study was rainy agriculture and irrigated agriculture as the fruit trees and vegetable, grazing animals were practiced and brick work.

Experimental animals

Twelve lambs were used in this experiment. They were at four months and the animal were divided into three groups (I, II and II) each group with four animals. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and once every week.

Experimental feed and the rations

Three rations were formulated for this study. The first one was prepared using groundnut seed cake at 30%, sorghum grains at 35%, wheat bran 34% and 1% common salt and the second ration being formulated using groundnut cake at 30%, sorghum grains at 27% and wheat bran at 16%, Z. glochidiata at 26 % and common Salt at 1%. The third ration (III) was prepared using groundnut cake at 27%, sorghum grains at 30%, Z. glochidiata at 42% and common salt at 1% (Tables 1,2).

Chemical analysis

The ingredients used in rations’ formulation were analyzed via proximate analysis according to AOAC [11]. The nutrients’ digestibility was determined according to procedures described by McDonald, et al. [12].

Statistical analysis

The data was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance according to Steel, et al. [13]. The differences among treatment means were detected using least significant differences (LSD) test.

Results and discussion

The experimental rations

Percent ingredients used in formulation the experimental rations were shown in Table 1.

Chemical composition of the ingredients used in rations

The dry matter was the highest in ration three (94.9%) followed by ration II (93.8%) and was the lowest in ration III (92.2%). The highest organic matter was in ration III (87.3%) and was similar in rations I and II (86.9% each). The crude fiber was the highest in ration III (15.5) % followed by that of ration II (12.7%) and lowest in ration I (7.7%). The nitrogen free extracts (NFE) was highest in ration I (54.3%) followed by that in ration II, (47.1%) and the lowest in ration II and (42.9%). Ether Extracts was 4.7% in ration I, and 4.6 % in ration II and 4.4% in ration III with non significant differences at P>0.05 (Table 2).

The results of the proximate analysis results have indicated that the chemical composition of Z. glochidita meal that included predominantly seeds and other parts in small fractions was comparable to the convention feed ingredients used in formulation of small ruminants rations. Protein content of Z. glochidita was 25.76 % compared to 14.5% in wheat bran and EE 3.74 % compared to 4.3 in wheat bran. Consequently the rations had 18.2, 19 and 25% crude protein when rations constituted Z. glochidita meal at 0, 26 and 42% respectively. The high protein % in the third ration could be attributed in higher protein content of Z. glochidita meal (Table 3).

General performance of the experimental animals

Performance of Desert lambs as affected by the level of Z. glochidia meal in rations is presented in Table 4. Final body weight it was the highest (25.6 kg) in group II ,(23.9) kg in group I and (23.8)kg in group III .Body weight Change (kg/50day) was highest (6.1)kg in group II ,(4.9) in group I and (4.3) in group III . Weight Change g/d it was highest (122g) in group II , (98)g in group I and (86) in group III.

Voluntary dry matter intake of lambs as affected by the level of Z. glochidiata in the rations

The dry matter intake of lamb groups on rations containing deferent levels of Z. glochidita in presented in table (1). The lambs consumed 500, 500,500g dry matter per day when the shellini constituted 0, 26, 42% of the ration for I , II , III , groups of lambs respectively. The groups consumed throughout the experimental period amounted to 25kg to per group (I, II, III) respectively (Table 4).

Lambs in general consumed rations rationally without reluctance and there has never been a need to get them adapted to taking Z. glochidita ration, upon consumption of rations containing different levels of Z. glochidita, it was observed that lambs did not suffer from digestive disorders such as bloat, diarrhea in group I and II, just one lambs suffer from diarrhea and death in group II and one lamb suffer from Urine retention and death in group I (Table 4).

The chemical composition of the experimental rations

The results found that the chemical composition an affected by Z. glochidita meal used in rations, were crude protein in ration 18.2 , 19 and 25 % in rations for group I , II , and III respectively .showed higher crude protein 25% in ration III ,explained that rate of Z. glochidita meal it was 42% in ration III , 26% in ration II crude it was 18.2% and crude protein 19% in ration III when the ration 0% Zornia the animal groups performance as affected by the level of Z. glochidiata meal in rations that is presented in table (4) shows that the overall performance of the experimental animal was similar. The groups were similar in their initial weight at the beginning of the trial (Table 2).

In general the three rations and treatment groups and their feedlot performance and live body weight gain are shown in table (4) the average initial body weight were 19, 19.5 and 19.5 kg for group I , II and III respectively. The average weight was not significantly (p < 0.01) different. The final body weight was 23.9, 25.6 and 23.8 respectively as the affects of inclusion of Z. glochidita at different proportion is sheep rations. Weight gain were 98, 122 and 86 g for group I , II and III respectively. Roughage intake were 470, 590 and 410 g for group I , II and III respectively. Roughage intake was higher in group II 590 g, 470g in group I and 410g group III. Ration intake were 500g similar for all groups affected by the level of Z. glochidita in ration. Total feed intake were 970g, 1090g and 910g for group I , II, and III respectively. The highest feed intake was 1090g in group II, decreased to 970g in group I and low 910g in group III.


The study concluded that the meal can be used 26% Zornia glochidia with 16% Wheat Bran to increase the weight while reducing the cost of nutrition, although reduced consumption of lambs for feed at 42%, but the intake of feed was sufficient to maintain the rates of gain in live weight.

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